بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
PENICILLIUM
Taxonomic Classifications
Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Ascomycota
Class Euascomycetes
Order Eurotiales
Family Trichomaceae
Genus penicillium

Morphological structures and types of conidiophore branching in Penicillium. a. simple; b. one-stage branched; c. two-stage branched; d. three-stage branched Colonies are usually fast growing, in shades of green, sometimes white, mostly consisting of a dense felt of conidiophores. Microscopically, chains of single-celled conidia (ameroconidia) are produced in basipetal succession from a specialized conidiogenous cell called a phialide. The term basocatenate is often used to describe such chains of conidia where the youngest conidium is at the basal or proximal end of the chain. In Penicillium, phialides may be produced singly, in groups or from branched metulae, giving a brush-like appearance known as a penicillus. The penicillus may contain both branches and metulae (penultimate branches which bear a whorl of phialides). All cells between the metulae and the stipes of the conidiophores are referred to as branches. The branching pattern may be either simple (non-branched or monoverticillate), one-stage branched (biverticillate-symmetrical), two-stage branched (biverticillate-asymmetrical) or three- to more-staged branched. Conidiophores are hyaline and may be smooth- or rough-walled. Phialides are usually flask-shaped, consisting of a cylindrical basal part and a distinct neck, or lanceolate (with a narrow basal part tapering to a somewhat pointed apex). Conidia are globose, ellipsoidal, cylindrical or fusiform, hyaline or greenish, smooth- or rough- walled. Sclerotia may be produced by some species.

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الموضوع الأصلي: الفطريات penicillium || الكاتب: رياض الفراشات ||